History of Fidonet by Tom Jennings

Part 1

     FidoNet History and Operation     8 Feb 85
     Tom Jennings and many authors

     Part 1 of 3

                     This is a long and convoluted document; it has been
             sorely needed for months now, and it finally got done.
             FidoNet is growing at a tremendous rate, and newer sysops
             don't have the information that us oldies (pre Sept 84
             sysops) assume everyone knows; hence the history section
             here. There is a lot of extremely important material covered
             here that was assumed to be known by all; we are finding out
             otherwise.

                     This also covers some of the dark mysterious secrets
             about the magical node numbers, and how the magical node
             lists appear from nowhere. Those of you that have been
             FidoNet nodes since way back when, spring and summer of
             1984, and watched all this develop (such as it was) in full
             Technicolor, will know most of this; if you are a relatively
             new sysop, much of this may come as a suprise. Everyone
             should read this, experienced sysops, new sysops, and all
             Fido and FidoNet users.

                     FidoNet is no longer just a piece of software; it
             has become complex organism. There are about 160 Fidos in
             FidoNet right now; this does not include Fidos being run as
             Bulletin Board only systems, just ones that you can converse
             with over the net. If the average number of users on each
             system is 300 people, you can start to guess at the scale of
             things today.

             HISTORY:

                     When FidoNet was first tested, there were two nodes:
             myself here at Fido #1 in San Francisco, and John Madill at
             Fido #2 in Baltimore. John and I did all of the testing and
             development for the first pass at FidoNet. Its purpose: to
             see if it could be done, merely for the fun of it, like ham
             radio. It quickly became useful; instead of trying to call
             each others' boards up to leave messages, or expensive voice
             phone calls, Fidonet messages became more or less routine.

                     This was version 7 of Fido sometime in June 84 or
             so; it did not have routing, file attach, retry control,
             error handling, cost accounting, log files, or any of the
             niceties since added. A packet was made, a call placed, the
             packet transferred, that was it. This was adequate for a
             month or two, when there were less than 20 nodes.

                     In August of 84, the number of nodes was approaching
             30; the net was becoming clogged, believe it or not. FidoNet
             wasn't too smart about making calls then. With 30 systems,
             coordination became difficult; instead of a simple voice
             phone call to the (very few!) sysops to straighten out
             problems like modems not answering, wrong numbers, clock
             problems, etc, it took days to get the slightest problem
             repaired. There were by now six nodes in St. Louis, and Fido
             #1 was making seperate phone calls for each, when obviously
             one could be made. Enter the beginnings of routing.

                     The "original" FidoNet was very simple and friendly;
             you told me at Fido #1 that you had a FidoNet node ready, I
             put you in the list, with your phone number, and people
             called up and downloaded the list; done!

                     Well ... at first, "everyone knew each other"; we
             were in more or less constant contact. However, when the
             node numbers got into the twenties, there were people
             bringing up FidoNodes who none of us knew. This was good,
             but it meant we were not in close contact anymore.

                     The Net started to deteriorate; every single week
             without fail there was at least one wrong number, usually
             two. To impress on you the seriousness of wrong numbers in
             the node list, imagine you are a poor old lady, who every
             single night is getting phone calls EVERY TWO MINUTES AT
             4:00AM, no one says anything, then hangs up. This actually
             happened; I would sit up and watch when there was mail that
             didn't go out for a week or two, and I'd pick up the phone
             after dialing, and was left in the embarrasing position of
             having to explain bulletin boards to an extremely tired,
             extremely annoyed person.

                     There were also cases where the new node really
             wasn't up yet, and the number given was a home phone to be
             used temporarily, but I'd forget that, and include it in the
             list anyways. Or the new node wasn't really up yet, and we'd
             all make calls to it and it would not answer, or worse, the
             modem would answer but the software wasn't running, and we'd
             get charged for the call.

                     This obviously could not go on. We had to have some
             way to make sure that at least the phone numbers were
             correct! I started a new policy; before giving out a node
             number and putting it in the list, I had to receive a
             FidoNet message from the new node, directly. This verified
             that at least the new Fido was half way running. At the
             time, Fido had a provision whereby Fido #1 could set the
             node number remotely; I'd send a message back, and presto! a
             new node was up.

                     Well, this didn't work properly either; at the same
             time, the Fido software was changing so rapidly, to
             accomodate all the changes (literally a version a day for a
             few weeks there) that I was losing new node requests, wrong
             numbers caused by illegible handwriting, all sorts of
             problems. Out of laziness I would still assign nodes "word
             of mouth", and got in the same trouble as before.

                     The people in St. Louis (Tony Clark, Ben Baker, Ken
             Kaplan, Jon Wichman, Mike Mellinger) had their local Fidos
             going strong, and understood what FidoNet did, how it
             worked, and what it was about. They volunteered to take over
             the node list, handle new node requests, and leave me with
             the software. They tightened up on the FidoNet message
             requirement, and in a few months, had the "error rate"
             (wrong numbers, etc) down to practically zero, where it is
             today.

                     Though I did the programming, Ken Kaplan, Ben Baker,
             and the crowd in St. Louis did much of the design and most
             of the testing of routing, forwarding, and local nets. They
             still remain the experts on the intricacies of routing, and
             help sysops set up local nets.

                     Please keep in mind the entire process, from two
             nodes to over 50, took only three months! Fifty nodes is
             more than it sounds; at that level it becomes a large scale
             project. FidoNet went from about 50 nodes in Sept 84 or so,
             to the current 160+ in Jan/Feb of 85.

                     FidoNet today is a network quickly approaching the
             levels of complexity of commercial networks, and has many
             more capabilities than many "mini" networks, such as USENET,
             which has no routing or hosts. Only ARPAnet has some of the
             features of FidoNet. The southern California local network
             is three levels deep, with hosts in Orange, LA, Ventura, San
             Berdino and San Diego counties.

                     FidoNet is just too large today to run as an
             informal club. The potential for error is just too high to
             include numbers at random within the node list. I imagine we
             are in a predicament today what the radio ameteur operators
             had a number of years ago.

                     The requirements for new FidoNet nodes are pretty
             minimal, and they appear to be arbitrary and harsh if you
             aren't aware of what's going on. This is to spell them out
             in detail, so everyone will understand the process.

             FidoNet'S PURPOSE:

                     Very simple; it is a hobby, a non-commercial network
             of computer hobbiests ("hackers", in the older, original
             meaning) who want to play with, and find uses for, packet
             switch networking. It is not a commercial venture in any
             way; FidoNet is totally supported by it's users and sysops,
             and in many ways is similar to ham radio, in that other than
             a few "stiff" rules, each sysop runs their system in any way
             they please, for any reason they want.

                     Actually, not as bad as it sounds; basically,
             politeness as a rule:

             1.      New nodes, see below.

             2.      If your system is going to be down for a week or
                     more, please let Fido 51 know. They can take you
                     out of the list while you are gone, so other FidoNet
                     sysops won't be wasting phone calls.

             3.      If you change your phone number, or decide to stop
                     running Fido, let them know, so other FidoNet sysops
                     won't be wasting phone calls.

                     The thing to keep in mind is that FidoNet's
             telephone calls to send mail are costing someone money; if
             you are down just for a night or so, don't worry about it,
             just make sure your modem doesn't answer.

             THE NODE LIST

                     Obviously (if you are a FidoNet sysop that is) the
             node list is a text file containing all the names, phone
             numbers and other things on each node, and as distributed by
             Fido 51, routing information for the many local networks. It
             is a very compact list, and so there is no clue as to how
             that list is made.

                     Here is the current process for new nodes to obtain
             a node number, and get into the node list. This assumes you
             want to run a public access Fido; specialized systems are
             covered seperately, below.


             SET UP FIDO

                     Of course, you should get your Fido running first;
             no sense in trying to run mail if your Fido doesn't run! In
             your FidoNet area, enter a message for Fido #51, and include
             the following information:

             1.      Your boards name
             2.      City and state
             3.      Sysops name
             4.      Board phone number
             5.      Maximum baud rate; 1200 assumed otherwise
             6.      Hours of operation; 24 hrs assumed otherwise
             7.      Way to contact the sysop during the day. This is
                     not absolutely necessary, but it makes it easier
                     if there is some problem.

                     Most of this is pretty obvious. The sysops voice
             phone number will be kept secret; it will not be given out.
             It is only used if there is some problem, and a FidoNet
             message can't be sent for some reason.

                     For Fidos that want to run with an unlisted phone
             number, a few other things are needed:

             8.      A public FidoNet to act as mail host
             9.      The systems actual phone number

                     A host is required for an unlisted number, so that
             you can receive mail. (If you don't want to receive mail,
             then there is no reason for you to be part of FidoNet!) The
             host system will have to have the unlisted phone number, of
             course.

                     Fido 51 needs to have the phone number also, but it
             will be kept secret. This is so that they can contact you
             directly if there is any problem, such as a known bug or a
             question, or if your host drops out of the network, so there
             is some way to contact the local nodes.

             GETTING A NODE NUMBER

                     This is the part that seems so arbitrary if you
             aren't aware of what's happening. What happens is: you send
             Fido 51 the message described above. When they receive it,
             they put the stuff into the node list and fido list, pick
             you a node number, and mail a copy of it to you the next
             weekend.

                     This tests your system at the same time; you have to
             be able to sucessfully send and receive mail in order to get
             the node number. Out of it, you get a copy of the latest
             lists.

             NOTE:   Fido 51 does not mail out copies of the lists to
             everyone on a regular basis; it would mean too many phone
             calls ($$$ ...). You can get the new node list Friday
             evening at Fidos 10 and 51, or Fidos 1 and 2 later that
             weekend or early the next week, and usually most any other
             busy Fido.

                     If it all works, then 1) you know your system is
             working 2) Fido 51, the node list keepers, knows it's
             working 3) the other 160 or so Fido sysops know that your
             system was working at least as recently as the last node
             list. Print out the last few weeks nodelists; compare all
             the changes, not just the additions.

                     This is why node numbers aren't given out "word of
             mouth", or at other sysops request. It has to be done
             directly, as a test.


             WHAT FIDO 51 REALLY DOES

                     Making the node list is more than just typing in the
             information; they make sure that the information in the list
             is accurate as possible. This frequently means voice phone
             calls to double check, or calls to the new system to see
             what the problem is; sometimes it is as simple as the wrong
             baud rate, the time wrong on the new system, so that it is
             not running FidoNet at the right time.

                     Ken Kaplan and Ben Baker do the node list work when
             they have "spare time"; please be patient! As the number of
             new nodes increases every week, response time goes up.
             Currently, the node list is done once a week; new node
             requests must be received in Wednesday nights mail (by
             Thursday morning) so that they can work on it Thursday
             night, and send it out on Friday night, so that you will
             have it over the weekend. The volume of mail is such that it
             may take a few days to get out.

                     (Please note that Fido 51 is an unattended node;
             there is no one there to answer Y)ells unless someone
             happens to walk by. The machine is located at Data Research
             Associates, who kindly donated the phone line, and runs on a
             DEC Rainbow 100+, donated by Digital Equipment Corp.)

                     Fido 51 is an extremely busy system; they receive
             125 messages a week through FidoNet alone, so please be
             patient.

             CHANGES, MISTAKES AND UPDATES

                     If you ever find wrong information in the node list,
             please send the information to Fido 51; they will include it
             in the next list.

                     If you become part of a local net, ie. you have an
             incoming host, notify them, and it will be included in the
             node list also. Other changes might be baud rate (got a new
             modem!) hours of operation, board name or sysop, etc.


             SOME OTHER THINGS ...

                     If you have questions or problems with any part of
             Fido or FidoNet, please ask. Here's where to go for
             problems:

             HARDWARE, SOFTWARE, PERFORMANCE OR INSTALLATION TROUBLES

                     Call or FidoNet to Fido #1, me, Tom Jennings.
             FidoNet is best, if possible; that way, I have your "address
             and phone" handy. If not, then call Fido #1 and leave a
             message. If you leave it at G)oodbye, when you call back
             looking for a reply, remember to check in the ANSWERS area;
             Fido will NOT tell you if there is mail for you, you have to
             search for it.

                     Fido #1 always has the latest versions of Fido for
             all hardware supported, available for download. Fido #1
             ALWAYS runs one revision later than the released version; it
             is used to test new features or bug fixes, so that when
             released they will be working. Check the FIDO download area
             for the current Fido version.

                     I have nothing to do anymore with maintaining the
             node list, nor do I hand out node numbers.


             ROUTING, NODE LIST, LOCAL NET QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS

                     Fido 51. Since they keep the list, they're the ones
             to contact for node list problems. If you want advice on how
             to set up a local net in your area, they can offer help and
             advice.


             SPECIALIZED SYSTEMS

                     If you are setting up a private network, and it is
             to be truly private, what you do with it is your own
             business. If, however, there is any possiblility that
             members of your private network may wish to communicate with
             any members of the public network, you should contact Fido
             51 for the allocation of a block of node numbers to be
             assigned by you to the nodes in your network. This is to
             avoid node number conflicts upon receipt of FidoNet mail in
             the public network.

             LOCAL NETS

                     Neither I nor Ken Kaplan nor Ben Baker "run"
             FidoNet; local networks such as the one in Southern
             California and Massachusetts are entirely the responsibility
             of the sysops in the area; the only thing we ask is that the
             designated "incoming host" for that area be somewhat
             reliable, for the obvious reason that it will be receiving
             lots of phone calls from across the country.

                     As a matter of fact, you are encouraged to form
             local networks, or join one that exists locally. IT makes it
             cheaper for other systems to send you mail, and generally
             streamlines FidoNet operation.

                     Other than that, local nets are totally standalone;
             that is what they are for! For instance, SoCal can run their
             net anyway they please; it is their hardware, their phone
             lines, and their phone bills. It is their investment in
             work, and they should reap the benefits. If there is a
             "FidoNet policy", this is it.

             AND SO ON ...

                     I hope FidoNet is a bit clearer now; if you have any
             suggestions, or want to volunteer to help, please let us
             know. Our only interest is in keeping the node list correct
             and up to date; this simple list is what ties the entire net
             together.

             Ken Kaplan              Fido #51        314/432-4129
             Tom Jennings            Fido #1         415/864-1418
             Ben Baker               Fido #10        314/234-1462

Part 2

     FidoNet History  20 Aug 85
     by Tom Jennings and others

             This is Part Two in the history of FidoNet. It turned out that
     the original FIDOHIST.DOC (now called FIDOHIST.DC1, or just "Part
     One") was useful, and many people read it. Unfortunately, by the time
     everyone read it, it became totally obsolete. Oh well. Here is Part
     Two.

             FIDOHIST.DOC covered the early history of FidoNet, why it was
     done, how it was done, and the reasons for the organization and
     obscure rituals surrounding node numbers.  If you haven't read it yet,
     I suggest you do now, because I'll probably refer to things that won't
     make any sense otherwise.

             The original FidoNet was organized very simply; each FidoNet
     system (each node) had a number that served like a phone number,
     uniquely identifying it. The NODELIST, generated by the folks in St.
     Louis that had all FidoNet nodes in it, contains information on all
     known FidoNet systems. Every system in FidoNet had a current copy of
     the NODELIST, which served as the directory of systems.

             (In the interests of brevity I'm leaving out huge amounts of
     information; I hope you have read FIODHIST.DOC by now ...)

             FidoNet has been growing steadily since it started by accident
     in May 84 or so. The node list continued to get out of hand; the
     original FIDOHIST.DOC was written to try and help smooth things out.
     It is impossible to overemphasize the amount of work involved in
     keeping the node list accurate. Basically, the guys in St. Louis were
     keeping track of hundreds of FidoNet systems in Boston, Los Angeles,
     London, Stockholm and Sweden, and publishing the results weekly. There
     has never been such a comprehensive and accurate list of bulletin
     board systems generated.


             We talked for many months as to how we could possibly find a
     solution to the many problems; it was at the point where if a solution
     was not found in a few months (by Aug. 85 or so) that FidoNet would
     collapse due to the sheer weight of it's node list.

             The newsletter, FidoNews, was, and still is, an integral part
     of the process of FidoNet. FidoNews is the only thing that unites all
     FidoNet sysops consistently; please keep up to date on it, and stock
     it for your users if you have the disk space. And contribute if you
     can!

             There were many constraints on the kind of things we could do;
     we had no money, so it had to be done for zero cost.  Centralization
     was out, so obviously localization was in; just how to do it was a
     total unknown. We thought of going back to having people in different
     areas handle new node requests in their area, but that always
     generated confusion as to who a person should go to, how to avoided
     having someone requesting a node number from different people
     simultaneously, etc., etc.

             The old method of routing was very different than the current
     method, and much more complex; instead of Fido automatically routing
     to hosts, each sysop had to specify (via the ROUTE.BBS file) how all
     routing was done in the system. The was done originally by hand, later
     by John Warren's (102/31) NODELIST program.

             Then of course there was the problem that no matter what we
     did, it would not be done overnight. (ha ha.) It would take many weeks
     at the least, possibly months, so that whatever we did had to be
     compatible with the old method as well.

             We went through probably hundreds of ideas in the next few
     months, some possibly useful, some insane. Eventually the insanity
     boiled down to a pretty workable system. We chatted by FidoNet and by
     voice telephone. Eventually, we settled on the two part number scheme,
     like the phone company does with area codes and exchanges.  It
     accommodated backwards compatibility (you can keep your present node
     number) and the new "area code" (net number) could be added into an
     existing field that had been set to zero. (This is why everyone was
     originally part of net #1).


             When a fortunate set of circumstances was to bring Ezra
     Shapiro and me to St. Louis to speak to the McDonnell Douglas
     Recreational Computer Club on XXXX 11th, we planned ahead for a
     national FidoNet sysops meeting that weekend. Ken and Sally Kaplan
     were kind enough to tolerate having all of us in their living room.

             The people who showed up were (need that list) The meeting
     lasted ten continuous hours; it was the most productive meeting I (and
     most others) had attended. When we were done, we had basically the
     whole thing laid out in every detail.

             We stuck with the area code business (now known as net and
     region numbers) and worked out how to break things up into regions and
     nets. It was just one of those rare but fortunate events; during the
     morning things went "normally", but in the afternoon solutions fell
     into place one by one, so that by late afternoon we had the entire
     picture laid out in black and white. Two or three months of
     brainstorming just flowed smoothly into place in one afternoon ...

             What we had done was exactly what we have now, though we
     changed the name of "Admin" to "Region", and added the "alternate"
     node and net numbers. (We still seem to be stuck with that terrible
     and inaccurate word, "manager". Any ideas?) I previously had a buggy
     test hack running using area codes, and the week after the meeting it
     was made to conform to what we had talked about that Saturday.

             When version 10C was done, it accomplished more or less
     everything we wanted, but it sure did take a long time. 10C was
     probably the single largest change ever made to Fido/FidoNet, and the
     most thoroughly tested version. At 10M, there are STILL bugs left from
     that early version, in spite of the testing.

             Once the testing got serious, and it looked like we had a
     shippable version, St. Louis froze the node list, and started slicing
     it into pieces, to give to the soon-to-be net and region managers.
     (That word again.) This caused a tremendous amount of trouble for
     would-be sysops; not only was it difficult enough to figure out how on
     earth to get a node number, once they did they were told node numbers
     weren't being given out just yet. Explaining why was even harder,
     since FIDOHIST.DC2 (ahem) wasn't written yet. (I have to agree, this
     thing is a little bit late) It was a typical case of those who already
     knew were informed constantly of updates, but those in the dark had a
     hard time. Things were published fairly regularly (am I remembering
     "conveniently" or "accurately" on this part?)

             Eventually, 10C was released, and seemed to work fairly well,
     ignoring all the small scale disasters due to bugs, etc. We couldn't
     just swap over to the new area code business until very close to 100%
     of all Fidos were using the new version. This was (for me) an
     excruciating period, basically a "hurry up and wait" situation. There
     had not been a node list release for a month or two, and for all
     practical purposes it looked like FidoNet had halted ...

             Finally, on June 12th, we all swapped over to the new system;
     that afternoon, sysops were to set their net number (it had been "1"
     for backwards compatibility), copy in the new node list issued just
     for this occasion, and go. I assumed the result was going to be
     perpetual chaos, bringing about the collapse of FidoNet. Almost the
     exact opposite was true; things went very smoothly (yes, there were
     problems, but when you consider that FidoNet consists of
     microcomputers owned by almost 300 people who had never even talked to
     each other ...)

             Within a month or so, just about every Fido had swapped over
     to the area code, or net/node architecture. With a few exceptions,
     things went very smoothly. No one was more surprised than pessimistic
     I. At this time, August, I don't think there is a single system still
     using the old node number method.

             This is all well and fine as far as the software goes, but it
     made a mess for new sysops. For us sysops who have been around for a
     while, there was no great problem, as we saw the changes happen one by
     one. However, new sysops frequently came out of the blue; armed with a
     diskette full of code, they attempted to set up a FidoNet node.

             Actually, I don't understand how anyone does it. The
     information needed is not recorded in any place that a non sysop could
     find. On top of that, most of it is now totally wrong! If you follow
     the original instructions, it said "call Fido #1 ..." if you found a
     real antique, or "call Fido #51 ..." if it is more current.  Of course
     now it tells you to find your region manager. "Region manager???"
     Well, a list of region managers was published in FidoNews, but unless
     you read FidoNews, how does anyone ever find out? I'll probably never
     know.

             ANYWAYS ... the original reason for all the changes was to
     DECENTRALIZE FidoNet. It just wasn't possible for Ken Kaplan to keep
     accurate, up to date information on every Fido in the US and Europe.
     The decentralization has been more or less a total success. The number
     of problems introduced were negligible compared to the problems
     solved, and even most new problems are by this time solved.

             It is interesting to note that with the hundreds of systems
     there are today, the national FidoNet hour is less crowded than it was
     when there were only 50 nodes.

             Please, keep in mind that no one has done anything like this
     before, we are all winging it, and learning (hopefully) as we go.
     Please be patient with problems, none of us is paid to do this, and it
     is more and more work as time goes on. Somehow it seems to all get
     done ...

             HOW TO GET A NODE NUMBER AND ALL THAT

             This is by necessity a very general idea of how it's done, and
     you were warned earlier that this may be obsolete this very minute;
     with that, here's the "current" process for starting up a new FidoNet
     node.

             You can of course skip all or part of this if you've done this
     before; if you haven't, well, be prepared for a lot of searching and
     asking questions.

             Of course, you need to have your Fido BBS system running
     first. It's probably best that you play with it for a while, and get
     some experience with how it all works, and whether you have the
     patience to run a BBS. It can get exasperating, and you will never
     find time to use the computer ever again.

             Obtain the most recent copy of the nodelist possible; this may
     take some searching. If you get totally lost, you can always contact
     Fido 125/1 or Fido 100/51; though these are very busy systems, they
     both usually have the very latest of anything, and can direct you to
     the right place.

             The big problem here is to find out if you are in a net or
     not, and if not, then who your region manager is. If you are in a
     large city (Los Angeles, Cincinnati, etc) then there is probably a net
     in your area. Look through the node list (use the N)odebook command in
     Fido, or a text editor) for the right area code or city.

             If there is no net in your area, then you are part of a
     region. This is a little harder, because regions are large, and
     sometimes cover many states. Look at all the regions in the node list,
     you should find a region that fits you.

             Once you find this, you have to contact the net or region
     manager to get your node number. Exactly how this is done depends on
     who the manager is, and how sticky they are for details. A near
     universal requirement is that you send your request via FidoNet, not
     by manually; this isn't done to make your life difficult, but to
     ensure that your system is really working right. IF you manage to get
     a FidoNet message to the manager, its usually safe to assume that
     you're system is working OK. If you get a reply in return, then you
     know both directions work.

             It is usually each sysops' responsibility to go get the latest
     nodelist and newsletters; they are not distributed to all systems
     because of the expense. (Though, I'm trying to get them distributed to
     more places than they are now, it's sometimes very difficult to get a
     copy of the nodelist!)

             Again, read the FidoNews newsletter regularly; it is about the
     only way to stay in contact with the rest of the net. Programs,
     problems, services, bugs and interesting announcements can always be
     found there. FidoNews articles don't come out of thin air; send in
     anything you think might be of interest. They don't have to be
     lifetime masterpieces, or even well written.

             Please remember the entire network is made of the sysops;
     there is no central location from which good things come, the net
     consists entirely of the sysops and their contributions. If you don't
     do it, chances are no one else will!

                             Tom Jennings
                             20 Aug 85

     Ken Kaplan              Fido 100/51     314/432-4129
     Tom Jennings            Fido 125/1      415/864-1418
     Ben Baker               Fido 100/10     314/234-1462

     [end of Part 2 of 3]

Part 3

     FidoNet History  30 Jul 93 [Part 3 of 3]

     Date: 09 Aug 93  20:29:00
     From: Bart Mullins
       To: All
     Subj: FidoNet History
     ______________________________________________________________________

     Hello All!

     A few days ago, some folks asked questions about the history of
     fidonet.  Well John Madill is working with Infinite Technologies and I
     got the story straight from him.    I re-post it here with his
     permission.

     ----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Date and Time: 07-30-1993 at 15:43:02
     Originated By: Scott Paterson (rsvp @ novell)
     ----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Hey, John Madill was famous in San Jose about two weeks ago.  He made
     the front page of our Computing section in the San Jose Mercury News
     (it's nice to have a newspaper that has a whole section each week
     dedicated to Computing).  Anyway, it spoke of the inception of FidoNet
     but didn't give any specific information on where you could find out
     more.  How about it.

     -Scott
     ====================
     R. Scott V. Paterson
     Novell Messaging
     ----------------------------------------------------------------------
          Date:  7/30/93    Time:  11:21 PM
     ----------------------------------------------------------------------
            To:  Mullins,Bart (Bart Mullins @ MWRS.12MWRSS)
          From:  John Madill  (John @ Infinite)
       Subject:  FidoNet History
     ----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Message:

     Originated By: John Madill (JOHN @ INFINITE)
     ----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Well, Scott, thanks for that nice intro!   If it's the same article
     that appeared here (by Steve Snow, Knight Ridder), I could comment
     that I only had 1 small mention, and it basically stated that I was a
     "co-worker", but thanks for using up my 15 minutes of fame! 

     Back in the early 80's, I was working at a ComputerLand in Baltimore
     (not Boston ... Tom Jennings was living in San Francisco, but he was
     working for Phoenix Technologies in Boston.)  For those of you that
     care to remember, way back then there was a product that was
     introduced called the IBM PC ... which everyone wanted, but was in
     short supply.  As an alternative, we were trying very hard to sell DEC
     Rainbows, which weren't exactly IBM compatible.

     Since I had purchased a Rainbow myself (really *smart* move ... NOT),
     and had an interest in BBSes and telecommunications, I started
     searching for a BBS and Telecomm software for the DEC.  After visiting
     *many* BBSes and asking for help, I was beginning to fear that I'd
     have to write the stuff myself.  Fortunately, someone recommended that
     I call a board in SF called "Fido's BBS".

     Trivia:  The name Fido came from the mishmash of 68000 hardware that
     Tom was using to run the BBS on ... a real mongrel.  How many 68000
     systems did you ever hear of that had DOS as the operating system?
     Since Tom did implementations of DOS for Phoenix, he wrote a version
     for that system.

     Anyways ... I called Tom, we talked, and I found out that he actually
     did the original BIOS and DOS for the DEC Rainbow, and converted his
     comm programs (TelLink & MiniTel) to run on the DEC so he could port
     stuff over to the Rainbow.

     Now, I had a comm program.  One of the things that we decided to do
     was to convert Fido's BBS to run on the DEC.  Only one small problem:
     I had the DEC, and Tom didn't.  We were stuck ... had to work
     together.

     As a result of this, we ended up working together to enhance Fido, and
     spent a lot of time "Yelling at the Sysop" ... chatting thru the
     keyboards back and forth.  (This is NOT a recommended means of
     communicating via long distance, especially when we could have hung
     up, and called via voice.)

     After many gigantic telephone bills, we pretty much agreed that there
     *might* be a better way.  The problem was that I'd call his BBS to
     leave a message, and he'd see me there, so we'd chat ... or vice-
     versa.  Since the key was to deposit e-mail at another BBS, the
     solution seemed obvious.  Make Fido call the other Fido ... deliver
     mail, and hang up.

     There were only 2 Fidos at that time, Tom's and Mine, so although we
     figured we add in a couple of more, we didn't think we'd need much
     sophistication for addressing ... just add in a "FidoNet" message
     area, secure it, and assign node numbers.  Ask the user for the Node
     number, let the FidoNet module look up the phone number, and call off
     peak to save $.

     Well, word got around pretty fast, and nodes started springing up all
     over.  That's when we got interested in the routing ... allowing the
     creation of centralized hubs, and piggy backing mail to nodes within a
     local call to a single node thru that node.  We actually started
     dreaming one day of linking coast to coast only thru local phone
     calls!  (I wonder if you can do that today?)

     Tom took on the responsibility of dishing out the node numbers - this
     was the only way we could eliminate duplicates - an since we only
     allocated 3 positions for node numbers (nnn), soon we had a *big*
     problem.  We had close to 1000 nodes and growing.  Now what?  We took
     the opportunity to alter the Nodelist format so that we had regions
     and nodes within regions ... (region-node), divided the USA into
     regions, and appointed Sysops as "region leaders" who could give out
     node numbers and maintain the nodelist for that region.  These lists
     were then distributed, and merged together at each site by add-in
     nodelist generators.

     Another stage in development was when we went international.  We
     decided to add in Zones (Zone-Region-Node) *before* we ran out of
     Regions.

     This was pretty cool ... for a while ... and then IFNA got formed.
     The International FidoNet Association ... oh boy!  Enter politics.
     For those of you that have never been there, you really don't know
     what missed.

     Mandates that the entire structure, protocol, and operation be
     documented ... and distributed ... all from people that had nothing to
     do with the design, creation or maintenance of the FidoNet software.
     Another demand by IFNA was that no changes could be made to the
     FidoNet system without approval by the Technical committee.  A lot of
     really neat things came out of the members (not committees) ... like
     Echos, which are similar to Discussion lists (library@infinite and
     library@novell) and listservers on the internet.  We also saw the
     creation of the internet gateway to FidoNet.

     People got upset ... alternate nets got created (AlterNet, etc.), and
     people left.  What started as a grass-roots communications network
     grew rapidly out of control due to internal political struggles.

     I got disillusioned, and resigned from zone 1, region 2, node number
     2.

     (I still love e-mail, though! )

     P.S.  Anyone out there know where Tom Jennings is?  Perhaps we need to
     get his expertise involved with MHS!

     ----------------------------------------------------------------------

     Well that's it folks.   Hope it answers some questions.

     Cheers,

     Bart

      * Origin: The Unofficial BBS  (1:387/615)

      -30-

     [end of Part 3 of 3]

"Fido", "FidoNet" and the dog-with-diskette are U.S. registered trademarks of Tom Jennings